Researchers at the Population Council have been involved in the collection of data on time use from adolescents in India, Kenya, Pakistan, and South Africa. Three questions are addressed in this working paper: (1) How does time use change during the transition to adulthood? (2) Does gender role differentiation intensify during the transition? (3) Does school attendance attenuate gender differences? The data document differences in time use patterns between students and nonstudents. Although female adolescent students still work longer hours than male adolescent students, the gender division of labor that typically develops during adolescence is greatly attenuated among students when time spent at work is measured by combining labor market work with noneconomic household work.
Ritchie, Amanda, Cynthia B. Lloyd, and Monica J. Grant. 2004. "Gender differences in time use among adolescents in developing countries: Implications of rising school enrollment rates," Policy Research Division Working Paper no. 193. New York: Population Council. Version of record: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2008.00552.x