Long-term impact of exposure to a gender-transformative program among young men: Findings from a longitudinal study in Bihar, India
Purpose: Gender-transformative programs with men and boys are recognized as a promising strategy for reducing violence against women and girls (VAWG). Reviews of such programs have underscored the need for investments in high-quality studies that measure effects on bio-behavioral outcomes and downstream effects. This article extends the limited evidence on long-term effects of gender-transformative programs with men and boys in India. Methods: We used data from a cluster randomized trial of a gender-transformative life-skills education cum sports coaching program that sought to promote gender egalitarian attitudes and rejection of VAWG among boys and men aged 13–21 and a follow-up study. Young men were interviewed thrice—before the launch, after the completion, and 5 years after the completion of the trial (N = 853). We used generalized estimating equations models to estimate the short- and long-term effects of the intervention and effect modification by participation level and intervention exposure in early/late adolescence. Results: The intervention succeeded in promoting gender equitable attitudes and notions of positive masculinity (β = 0.319; p = .012), and attitudes rejecting men's controlling behaviors (β = 0.428; p = .068) and VAWG (β = 0.673; p = .051) among young men in the long- erm. It reduced their perpetration of intimate partner violence (odds ratio 0.639; p = .062). The long-term positive effects were observed for regular participants only, and greater effects were observed among those exposed to the intervention in early than late adolescence. Discussion: Exposing boys to gender-transformative programs early on and ensuring their regular intervention participation can have sustained impact on promoting gender egalitarian attitudes and reducing their perpetration of VAWG.
Santhya, K.G. and A.J. Francis Zavier. 2021. "Long-term impact of exposure to a gender-transformative program among young men: Findings from a longitudinal study in Bihar, India," Journal of Adolescent Health, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.10.041.