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Adolescence, a time of transition to adulthood, is different for young men and women in Pakistan; brothers and sisters living under the same roof have different opportunities available in all aspects of life. More young people aged 15–24 live in Pakistan now than at any other time in its history—an estimated 36 million in 2004. Recognizing the dearth of information on the situation of this large group of young people, the Population Council undertook a nationally representative survey from October 2001 to March 2002. The analysis presented in this brief comes from Adolescents and Youth in Pakistan 2001–02: A Nationally Representative Survey. The survey sought information from youth aged 15–24, responsible adults in the household, and other community members in 254 communities. A total of 6,585 households were visited and 8,074 young people were interviewed. This brief concludes that girls face disadvantages, especially in rural areas, and that parents, community, and policymakers need to work together to ensure that girls, like their brothers, are able to make a successful transition to adulthood.