Document Type

Working Paper

Publication Date



The need to address the shortcomings of Egypt’s current social protection system as part of a broader process of developing a new social contract between the Egyptian government and its citizens has been noted for a number of years. With a new government recently put in place, Egypt is now at a potential turning point in terms of implementing unfinished reforms to the system or proposing alternative ones. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an overview and assessment of current public social protection mechanisms and suggest directions for new policy measures. The social and health insurance systems are covered, as well as the social assistance program that provides non-contributory pensions. Recommended policy measures to improve the current social protection system fall into three inter-related categories: strengthening the link between contribution and benefit levels, expanding coverage, and improving the administration of the system.