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Current global developmental frameworks, including the Millennium Development Goals and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, require recent and reliable data to measure the achievement of targets. At the same time, increased decentralization and democratization have expanded the role that data play in informing development policies and evaluating development interventions at the national level. Increasingly, programs and policies are assessed by their ability to reach goals that have evidence-based indicators, placing a greater demand on countries to produce clear, timely, reliable, and relevant data. The Senegal case study that forms the basis of this report aimed to develop a general picture of the demand for data by policymakers and other data users. It also aimed to elicit views on barriers to data access, quality of available data, and potential interventions to improve the demand and supply of data. Similar case studies were conducted in three other countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, and Uganda. These countries were chosen based on their upcoming censuses, identified statistical capacity, active engagement in the production of important data, and participation in international data initiatives.