This working paper assesses the extent to which trade barriers, including traditional tariff barriers, non-tariff measures, and red tape, affect wage disparity and employment in Egypt. Using a microeconomic dataset, the author assesses to what extent different trade barriers affected wage disparity and employment in Egypt. This disparity is studied in three dimensions: on gender (males vs. females), qualification (blue vs. white collar workers), and regional (urban vs. rural workers). Findings show that both non-tariff measures and red tape barriers have a higher impact than traditional tariffs on wage disparity and that women, urban workers, and blue collar workers are more affected by such barriers. Finally, when the effects of observable worker characteristics are filtered out, it turns out that wage premia are negatively affected by all trade barriers.
Zaki, Chahir. 2011. "On trade policies and wage disparity in Egypt: Evidence from microeconomic data," Gender and Work in the MENA Region Working Paper no. 15. Cairo: Population Council.