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The birth of democracy in South Africa and the subsequent economic boom have made the country a prospective haven for many Africans willing or forced to leave their countries. Johannesburg has maintained its reputation as a city where everything is possible and accessible. Berea, Hillbrow, and Yeoville have become destinations for both internal and international (cross-border) migrants as a consequence of their proximity to the city center. However, migrant populations face obstacles that limit access to basic services such as health care, housing, transportation, employment, credit, and security. Asylum-seekers, refugees, and the undocumented are particularly vulnerable and at risk of discrimination. The Population Council and the Ford Foundation conducted a needs assessment to identify and document key social, legal, economic, and health-related issues affecting the populations in the inner city of Johannesburg. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to explore their needs, health-seeking behavior, capabilities, social networking, and coping strategies. As noted in this research summary, the goal was to understand these experiences and challenges from the migrants’ perspective to help develop appropriate interventions to meet their needs.