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Given the constraints faced by the health care infrastructure in responding to the AIDS crisis in sub-Saharan Africa, and the limitations of traditional educational approaches in motivating people to modify their sexual behavior within the African context, community-based efforts at AIDS prevention, and care of those affected, are the first lines of defense against the disease. Thus, they deserve greater scrutiny, to learn from the experiences and to continue and expand their efforts. The “Community-Based AIDS Prevention and Care in Africa: Building on Local Initiatives” project is being carried out by the Population Council with support from Glaxo Wellcome. The project, which integrates HIV/AIDS prevention and care activities at the community level, focuses on five countries in East and Southern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe). The first phase identified essential components that make community-based efforts successful. The second phase includes dissemination of findings from Phase I in the five participating countries, developing and implementing action-oriented research activities to strengthen the client-support capabilities of selected local initiatives, and reporting research results. This document is a report on the implementation of the first activity under Phase II.