In sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS has become one of the leading causes of death among children under the age of five years. Yet, despite increased availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), children have been largely ignored or excluded from treatment initiatives. While efforts to get more children on treatment are increasing, important information is lacking to guide program and policy implementation. To address these gaps, the Horizons Program and the University of Cape Town conducted a rapid situational analysis in 2005 of pediatric HIV treatment sites in South Africa. In 2003, the South African government approved a plan for a national HIV treatment program with the goal of at least one service delivery point in each district providing treatment. The government guidelines emphasized providing treatment for both adults and children and the initial effort resulted in a significant number of children initiating treatment. This research summary details what is happening on the ground to understand how children have been affected by the ART rollout and what can be done to reach the thousands more that should be on treatment.
Michaels, Desiree, Brian Eley, Lewis Ndhlovu, Naomi Rutenberg, and Hena Khan. 2006. "Expanding pediatric access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa," Horizons Research Summary. Washington, DC: Population Council.