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In 2003, South Africa announced its intention to roll out possibly the largest HIV and AIDS treatment program in the world. Much attention is currently focused on supply-side issues, particularly drug procurement and pricing. Far less attention has been paid to demand for and delivery of treatment, care, and support services. Further, although the role of the community and community organizations is articulated in government policy there has been little active engagement with NGOs on the development of these roles or on how to encourage community organizations to support and participate in the antiretroviral (ARV) rollout. This study collected data on barriers and challenges to the use of services and on involvement of community organizations in HIV and AIDS and ARV services for use in the design and implementation of appropriate interventions. As noted in this summary report, successful community mobilization ensures adequate support for people living with HIV, combats stigma and discrimination, reduces social isolation, increases adherence, and contributes to the success of community education programs. Recommendations were shared with key local, provincial, and national stakeholders.