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Karnataka is one of the high HIV prevalence states in India. Results from the National Family Health Survey indicate that 0.69 percent of adults aged 15–49 were infected with HIV in 2005–06. According to sentinel surveillance system data, HIV prevalence among pregnant women receiving antenatal care (ANC) in Karnataka was 1.3 percent. Further, 18 of the state's 27 districts have recorded HIV prevalence of more than 1 percent among pregnant women receiving ANC in sentinel sites. Strong male migration patterns are evident in some of the state’s high HIV prevalence districts. According to the 2001 census, Karnataka ranks fourth in terms of total in-migration, with 2.2 million men on the move from 1991 to 2001. These northern districts are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. To inform HIV prevention efforts, the Population Council studied patterns and motivations related to migration of male laborers and their links with HIV risk. As part of this study, the Council conducted a systematic analysis of 2001 census data on migration and district-level sentinel surveillance data on HIV prevalence. The purpose of the research was to document patterns of male migration and determine whether there was a relationship between migration and HIV prevalence.