Viral load outcomes in a cohort of alcohol-consuming people living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy in Mumbai, India
We examined the association between alcohol consumption, adherence and viral load (VL) in a cohort of 940 alcohol-consuming, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men receiving antiretroviral therapy in Mumbai. Some of the participants (16.7%) had missed > 1 doses in the last four days and 17.6% reported > 1 treatment interruptions in the last 12 months; 60.8% of the participants consumed alcohol > 2 times/month, 62.8% consumed > 3 drinks/typical day and 11.5% reported binge drinking > 1 times/month; 76.4% of the participants had VL < 200 copies/mL. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with nonadherence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–1.31) and treatment interruptions (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.11–1.31). We found no association between alcohol use and VL. There was, however, a significant interaction effect of alcohol use and nonadherence on virological failure (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.03–1.47) implying that alcohol negatively impacts VL outcomes but mediated through adherence. Alcohol use was associated with poor adherence, which in turn was a strong predictor of virological failure.
Sarna, Avina, Roopal Jyoti Singh, Jean J. Schensul, Sushma S. Gaikwad, Kavita Joshi, Rupal Malye, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Toan Ha, and Stephen L. Schensul. 2020. "Viral load outcomes in a cohort of alcohol-consuming people living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy in Mumbai, India," International Journal of STD & AIDS, https://doi.org/10.1177/0956462420921731.