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Globally, less than 1 out of 20 men who have sex with men (MSM) has access to HIV prevention and care. UNAIDS has estimated that at least 5 to 10 percent of all HIV infections globally occur through male-to-male sexual activity. In spite of the high risk of HIV infection and evidence of extensive sexual networks, national HIV programs in Africa have been slow to address MSM in prevention and treatment efforts. To address these issues, the Population Council and the National AIDS Control Council of Kenya convened a meeting on May 14–15, 2008. The goals of the meeting were to justify and legitimize discussion of MSM at the national and regional levels and to build support for prevention, testing, and treatment services for MSM. The meeting brought together more than 60 representatives from national HIV programs, research organizations, bilateral donor agencies, multilateral programs, and MSM advocacy groups from 16 African countries. This consultation report summarizes the key findings and lessons learned that emerged at the meeting and outlines future priorities identified by participants.