Spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous tubule of the testis to produce millions of spermatozoa per day, with each spermatozoon containing a haploid complement of chromosomes. It is precisely regulated by two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), secreted from the pituitary gland under the influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. It is also regulated by testosterone released from Leydig cells found in the interstitial space and by estradiol-17β released from Sertoli and germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, spermatogenesis is regulated by a local functional axis, known as the apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES)-blood-testis barrier (BTB)-basement membrane axis, that coordinates different cellular events across the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis.
Cheng, C. Yan and Dolores D. Mruk. 2013. "Spermatogenesis, Mammals," in Stanley Maloy and Kelly Hughes (eds.), Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics (Second Edition), pp. 525–528.